Teeth Anatomy

teeth anatomy


Knowledge of the anatomy of teeth is indispensable not only in order to understand the pathological process, but also the possible therapies.
Teeth are found in the oral cavity, and their roots are inserted in the alveolar processes of the upper and lower jaw.
The permanent dentition of an adult is composed of 32 teeth, indicated with Arabic numbers from 1 to 8.
The tooth is composed of two parts: the CROWN and the ROOT.
Two different types of dental tissues cover these two structures.
The line of junction between the crown and the root is called the CEMENTUM-ENAMEL JUNCTION (CEJ – NECK). teeth
The CROWN is the part of the tooth that emerges from the bone and it is covered by Enamel.
The ROOT is the part of the tooth that is inserted into the bone and it is coated by Cementum.
In healthy conditions of the oral cavity it is not visible.
In clinical practice, the dental arches are usually distinguished in 4 quadrants, tracing two lines: a horizontal line that divides the upper arch from the lower one, and a vertical line that passes between the 2 central incisors of the upper and lower arch.
These lines thus delimit two upper quadrants (Right and Left) and the two lower quadrants (Right and Left) and this division makes it possible to indicate the precise position of teeth. Conventional abbreviations are used to indicate each tooth and its location.
The most commonly used system to effect annotations in clinical charts and to communicate among operators, is the following: the quadrants are numbered from 1 to 4, starting form the right upper jaw and proceeding in the clockwise direction.
The number of the tooth is combined with the quadrant in which the tooth is located.
Therefore, a number composed of two figures is assigned to each tooth: the first indicates the quadrant and the second indicates the single tooth.


Teeth issues

teeth smile anatomy
smile The hard part of the tooth is composed of three different calcified tissues:


The DENTIN constitutes the principal part of the tooth and it is present in both the crown and the root.
The ENAMEL is the hardest of the calcified tissues and it forms a thick layer on the Dentin in the area that corresponds to the crown of the tooth.
The CEMENTUM coats the Dentin in the area that corresponds to the root of the tooth. The tooth encloses a hollow space within the Dentin called the PULP CAVITY.
This cavity has an opening at the apex of the root called the APICAL FORAMEN.
The walls of the pulp cavity are lined with ODONTOBLASTS, distributed in a single layer. They produce Dentin.
The remaining part of the pulp cavity is occupied by the dental pulp, which contains cells and numerous blood vessels and nerves that pass through the apical foramen; these are all necessary to keep the tooth alive.
DENTIN The Dentin is a calcified tissue, 72% of which is composed of inorganic salts, that are CRYSTALS OF HYDROXYAPATITE (Calcium Phosphate).
It is produced by the ODONTOBLASTS that, as already said, line the walls of the pulp cavity.
If a cross section of the Dentin is examined, the extensions of the Odontoblasts, called DENTINAL FIBERS or TOMES’ FIBERS, are visible. They extend towards the outside through many canaliculi called DENTINAL TUBULES.
The maximum production of Dentin performed by the Odontoblasts takes place during the development of the tooth; however this production never stops and continues, very slowly, even after the tooth has erupted.
The dental fibers are enveloped by nerves, therefore when the Dentin is exposed there is direct contact between the nerves and the external environment, and this causes pain.

ENAMEL 95-97% of the Enamel is composed of inorganic salts (Crystals of Hydroxyapatite). It is produced by cells called AMELOBLASTS which cease their activity when the tissue has been completely formed.
The structure of the Enamel is composed of PRISMS which extend from the external surface to the internal surface of the Enamel. An organic matrix is interposed between one prism and another (INTERPRISMATIC SUBSTANCE).
Each prism contains Crystals of Hydroxyapatite, that have a hexagonal section, and that are closely-packed and well aligned.
The Cementum-Enamel Junction at the neck of the tooth may have one of the three aspects described below:

  1. In 10% of the cases the Cementum and the Enamel are not in contact and a small portion of the Dentin remains exposed.
  2. In 30% of the cases the Cementum and the Enamel are in linear contact.
  3. In 60% of the cases the Cementum covers a small portion of the Enamel.

Abdominal And Stomach Bloating: Causes And Remedies

Abdominal And Stomach Bloating

Stomach bloating is a very common occurrence – all of us will experience it at some point in our lives. It is that feeling of “fullness” or “pressure” in the abdomen that can make you feel weighted down. Sometimes it is difficult to tell whether the cause of a flabby belly is abdominal fat or abdominal bloating, but it is important to be able to differentiate the two, because abdominal exercises will never reduce bloating.

What causes bloating?

The most common reason for abdominal bloating is gas trapped in the small intestine. Gas and abdominal pains, especially after meals, are an indication of this problem. Doctors believe that bloating is usually the result of an intestinal disorder such as IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), usually also associated with diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits.

Here are some of the common causes of stomach bloating:

  • Too much alcohol
  • Too little proteins in the diet – proteins speed up the rate the food goes through the system
  • Too much salt – even the smallest excess amount of sodium causes bloating
  • Fizzy drinks – the carbon dioxide (bubbles) creates gas which increases the volume of the stomach and slows down its emptying
  • Lactose intolerance – in this case the stomach cannot properly digest the lactose in dairy products, which leads to bloating
  • Pre-menstrual tension – in this case, the symptoms should disappear once menstruation starts
  • On-going stress
  • Certain medicines, including the contraceptive pill
  • Caffeine and smoking
  • Last but not least, there are certain foods that cause bloating. These are: beans, vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels, broccoli, onions; fruits such as apples, peaches and pears and some dietetic foods that contain artificial sweeteners such as sugar-free candies and gum. Fatty foods also delay the process of emptying the stomach causing abdominal bloating.

Stomach bloating after eating is the most common symptom of IBS. If this abdominal bloating lasts for more than a couple of days up to a week, you may be suffering from chronic stomach bloating. You may be surprised to find that if you avoid the causes presented above, your problem will be solved without any additional efforts. Below you can find some tips that will help you flatten your stomach if you suffer from IBS.

How can you get rid of bloating?

Drink plenty of water! Water offers great bloating relief; it helps with digestion encouraging your body to flush out toxins and emptying the stomach. You should drink at least 2 liters of plain water or herbal tea a day (fennel, cinnamon, dill and sage teas are just some of the herbal remedies for bloating).  Avoid fizzy drinks and drinks that have artificial sweeteners or caffeine.

Avoid the use of antibiotics. These antibiotics destroy the healthy bacteria in the digestive tract that are beneficial for the digestion of food. If you do have to take antibiotics, take B-complex vitamins with it, or drink yoghurt to protect these bacteria.

Avoid foods that are either too hot or too cold. Eating foods that have a temperature out of your comfort zone makes you unconsciously take in air. Very cold beverages and chewing gum can also make you swallow air that goes right to your stomach and bloats it.

Limit your salt and sugar intake: You may be taking in too much salt without even knowing it. Read the label of the products your buy and try to stick to low-sodium products. Also you may want to make healthier diet choices that will help your stomach look flatter (choose a fresh cucumber over a pickle or a baked potato over French fries).

Eat slowly! Take your time to chew or food! You’ll be helping your stomach break down the food faster and you’ll be swallowing less air.

No heavy meals at dinner time! A heavy meal, especially one that is not burnt for energy right away, encourages the buildup of acid which in turn leads to bloating.

Stomach bloating is a very common affection, usually caused by unhealthy eating habits. This problem can be corrected if you apply some healthy eating principles, and it usually doesn’t take a lot of effort to turn a flabby, bloated belly into a firm, flat tummy. However if bloating persists over a longer period of time, or gets worse in time, you should seek medical advice.

Energetic Medicine and Nutri-Energetics


The basic premises of energetic medicine are that our state of physical health is reflected in the energy field that both contains the physical body and extends beyond it – and that changes to the body’s energy field can influence the physical body as well as the psyche. The energy of the body field is familiar to different cultures under various names, such as vital energy or life force in the west or as qi in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), ki in the Japanese Kampo system, doshas in Ayurvedic medicine, and elsewhere as prana, etheric energy, fohat, orgone, odic force, mana, and homeopathic resonance.

The work of Peter Fraser describes how the physical structures in the human body, from the cells, to the tissues, the organs and the body cavities – for example, the four chambers in the heart, the thoracic and abdominal cavity, the skull, etc. – these different layers and structures of the body both interact with and are the basis for the body’s energy field.

For instance, many people know about and may have had an electro-cardiogram, which measures the electromagnetic field of the heart. Less well known is that the heart’s electromagnetic field can be detected from 15 feet (or 5 meters) away from your body. Nor that every cell in your body (and each person’s body has between 50 and 100 billion cells) generates an electromagnetic field and that manipulating this field can alter the cell’s behavior.

In the 1970s, when Peter Fraser began his research, he was working on a way to make homeopathic solutions that are equivalent to the meridians of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Fraser found correspondences between his map of the body energy field and the 12 major meridians of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Because the 12 energy pathways that Fraser mapped are somewhat different and extend beyond the meridians of TCM, he calls these pathways “Energetic Integrators” and describes them as pathways for information transfer within the body. Fraser now describes the body field as an example of a Quantum Electro-Dynamic (QED) field and uses quantum entanglement to explain communication within biological systems.

About five years ago, Peter Fraser helped cure an Englishman, Harry Massey, who was suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome. Massey had spent years looking for a cure for his debilitating disease and had explored every approach to energetic medicine that he came across. Along with regaining his health, Massey was very excited because he believed that Fraser’s approach provided a crucial link joining quantum physics, biology, and Eastern medicine. Fraser and Massey began to work together and developed the Nutri-Energetic Systems (NES) software and diagnostic device.

The exciting next step in the NES story is that Fraser had worked on how to correct whatever damage or deviation there is in the human body field by developing a variety of “infoceutical” drops, solutions of minerals imprinted with magnetic vectors, that help correct the errors in the human body field.

NES has since developed a variety of standardized infoceutical drops, each specific to a particular structure in the body’s energy field and affecting specific physical and psychological processes.

These NES infoceuticals are colloidal minerals in water that have quantum-level information imprinted on them. NES has developed a patented technology that opens up the matter wave of electrons and imprints this matter wave with photonic information. The matter wave is then returned to its original energy level.

When a person takes these infoceutical drops (the dosage period can vary from several weeks up to many months), the information contained in these drops can correct distortions in the body’s energy field and move the body field closer to its optimum state.

The protocol that NES recommends first corrects for deviations in the body field’s alignment with the major fields of the planet, the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of Earth.

By the second week, a person takes infoceutical drops to correct for energy imbalances in the major organs of the body, followed by drops to correct imbalances in the energetic integrators or information pathways. There is also a special series of NES infoceuticals called energetic terrains, that correct for weaknesses or viral shadows left in the human body field by present or past illnesses (sometimes from far in the past).

To date, NES reports that about 90 per cent of people experience a significant improvement after following the basic protocol over a six-month period. This normally includes follow-on NES diagnoses and an adjustment in the NES infoceuticals every three to four weeks.

In general, NES has found that changes to the body’s energy field usually require about two weeks of infoceutical drops, changes to soft tissue take at least two months of drops, and changes to denser tissues require at least six months.

The NES system is a standalone system, but is also compatible with most other modalities, even the pharmaceuticals of traditional medicine. To find out more about Nutri Energetics from the inventors of the NES device, go to www.nutrienergetics.com . To read a review of the NES Professional System, go to: www.emreview.org.uk

Why Do I Have to Take Anatomy and Physiology Classes Before Medical School?

Well, in all honesty you don’t. The only requirement to get into medical school is to have an undergraduate degree.

However, we feel that if you don’t take anatomy and physiology classes in the less stressful and less intense phase of your education in undergraduate school, then you may as well punch yourself in the face right now.

It would be a huge mistake to try and get through medical school without first apprising yourself of the basic structures and functions of the human body.

Medical school moves fast and it leaves no prisoners. If you can’t keep up then you have two choices- get cut, or repeat. The more you have to repeat the longer your training will take and the more debt you will rack up as you flounder through your classes.

Why Do I Have to Take Anatomy and Physiology Classes Before Medical School

The best insurance against medical school whiplash is to prepare yourself with anatomy and physiology classes as part of your Bachelor’s Degree.

You may be looking at the required class list for your major and find a lack of anatomy and physiology on there. If this is the case, so what?! Take the classes offered anyway.

Mark them as electives, or if you have to audit the courses. The more anatomy and physiology classes you take before you get into medical school, the better shape you will be in when you get to medical school.

Here are just some of the benefits you can get from taking anatomy and physiology classes before medical school:

  • You will know how to study. There is a lot of memorization involved in anatomy and physiology classes. If you don’t know how to do that well, then this is your chance to figure it out before it hinders you in medical school.
  • It will look good on your transcript. Medical school boards are going to like seeing classes like this on your Bachelor’s transcript when they consider who to allow into their medical programs.
  • You will know which parts challenge you. Some people struggle with muscles, others have a rough time with the nerves. If you know which part of anatomy and physiology you struggle most with, you will know which parts to study hardest in medical school.
  • You can skip right to the hard stuff. If you can skip over the introduction to the class, you will be ahead of the other students, and will have time to focus on the aspects of anatomy and physiology that you know will be harder, or that you have yet to encounter.
  • The terminology will be more familiar. There is a lot of funny words in anatomy and physiology books. Having a basic foundation of this verbage will help you to keep up with the professor as he spits out all the possibly foreign language.

These are just the most basic benefits you can receive from taking anatomy and physiology classes before you get into medical school. Even if those classes are not required for your major, find a way to fit them into your schedule. You will thank yourself later.

What part of the body does syphilis affect


Syphilis is one of the most dangerous sexual diseases. It occurs mostly among urban population, persons between 15 and 39 years of age. Epidemiologists think that the reason for growth in syphilis appearances is that people are uneducated about the disease, and increasing number of prostitutes that are not using protection while having sex. Increase didn’t happen in homosexual and bisexual community, probably because many use protection.

Syphilis is caused by spiral bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The bacterium enters the organism through small cuts or abrasions on the skin, often during intercourse. Disease can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or while giving birth. A doctor will diagnose or just establish the presence of the disease by analyzing blood. Blood tests are the most common way. If detected early, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. But, if the disease gets in the advanced stage, heart and nerve system will be too damaged to heal. There are four stages of syphilis: primary, secondary, latent and tertiary. During primary syphilis symptoms start about 20 days after the infection. First signs are small round painless wounds. First symptoms sometimes go untreated, after which a person develops a secondary syphilis. Symptoms can begin 15 days to 10 weeks after the fist little wound show up. Common symptom is a rash. Without treatment, this stage can lead to the next, the latent one. Latent stage can start 2 years to over 25 years after the infection. The risk of infecting a partner is low. The most serious stage of the disease is tertiary syphilis. Treponema pallidum can infect and damage all parts of the body and usually affects: eyes, brain, heart, liver, nervous system. 10 percent of the infected people develop a cardiovascular syphilis. 8 percent develop a neurosyphilis that can cause paralysis, blindness, insanity.
For treatment, conventional medicine uses penicillin because it’s the most efficient. If a person is allergic to penicillin, a doctor will prescribe tetracycline or erythromycin.
Syphilis is very tough, potentially deadly disease, and a person needs to go to the doctor as soon as notices the symptoms. There are a few alternative treatments as well: acupressure, Chinese medicine plants, homeopathy etc.


ageing of the facePhysical shape and mental productivity are at their best between 20 and 30 years of age, and stay stat way for many more years. In time, however, all body systems are getting less efficient. You might not recognize the changes until you are in your 40s or 50s, but effects of aging usually come without warning. First sign of aging though, for many people is hair loss or grey hair. Hair loss in your 20s is usually genetic, and if it happens, it’s almost impossible to stop it. Piling up and disposal of human body fat can significantly influence changes in features. Middle age men usually have abdominal fatty tissue. Women have issues with stomach, breast and hips fat. Bones reach maximum density between 25 and 35 years of age, and their slowly erosion that leads to osteoporosis can result in height loss. Also, calcification can attack bones so they lose protective cartilage or arthritis symptoms can occur. Ageing is a process which leads to skin thinness. The skin loses its flexibility and starts to wrinkle; arms and face skin especially. Ageing spots or freckles that appear on arms are usually harmless and can disappear in time. The best you can do for your skin is not to over expose it to sun. What used to be considered as a healthy dark skin, now can be a huge factor in getting cancer. Red itchy skin and other forms of dermatitis can also be connected with ageing. Parts of sag skin can be surgically tightened. Also, existing wrinkles can be removed for a certain period, but fat under skin will eventually get so thin that new wrinkles will appear. Bone disorder is getting more obvious as people age and above mentioned problems often happen. Combination of slow reflexes and weak balance make older people prone to falls and slips. Having fragile bones, weaker muscles and thinner skin means there is a great possibility that any fall can have serious consequences. Healing process is significantly slower for older people which mean that any injury can have serious, life threatening repercussion. Human body needs exercising and good nutrition thus it is important to have an active and healthy life style.




Cancer, or malignant neoplasm how it’s medically called is a broad group of various diseases. These diseases involve urlegulated cell growth. Cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors and invade nearby parts of the body. Besides malignant tumors there are also benign, that do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues and do not spread throughout the body. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans.
In this article we will discuss cancer related things in general, such as symptoms, caution measures and characteristics of cancer. Later on we will get to specific cancers and most common ones.
The determination of cancer is complex. There are so much factors that are responsible for increasing the risk of cancer, such as the usage of tobacco, certain infections, environmental pollutants, lack of physical activity and so on. This factors can either directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease. According to statistics, five to ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary. When it comes to detection of cancer, there are number of ways, including the presence of signs and symptoms of cancer, various screening tests and medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. The chances of surviving the disease vary greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of treatment. While cancer can While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age.

In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million). Rates are rising as more people live to an old age and as mass lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.

The Stomach


The stomach is the widest part of the alimentary canal, reservoir capacity of about 1200-1500 cm 2, which collects snacks from the esophagus and begins to digest, mixes them into a trot (chymus) and gradually insert into the initial part of the small intestine. Its shape and size are highly variable depending on the position of the man’s body and the quantity of food. Moderately filled stomach in the upright position takes its basic form, the form of vertical hook, length of around 25cm, 10-20cm width and 8-9cm thick. On it are seen two parts-vertical and horizontal. The vertical part or body of stomach (corpus ventriculi) is located to the left of the spine. The walls of the stomach are obliquely placed. The front wall (paries anterior) is directed forward and upward, and the back wall (paries pasterior) is directed backwards and downwards. Edge of the stomach-right and left are arched and are called corners. Right edge is called small curve and the left edge is called a big curve. Large gastric curvature changes its position depending on the position of the body, the quantity of food and tone of the anterior abdominal wall.

the stomatch

Stomach wall is composed of serous, muscular and mucosal layer. Serous layer (tunicaserosa) is part of the peritoneum covering the stomach sides. Muscle layer (tunica muscularis) consist of smooth fibers, which are grouped and form three layers: outer, middle and inner. The outer, longitudinal layer (stratum longitudinal) regulates the length of the stomach with its contraction. Its muscle fibers continue longitudinal layer of the esophagus and descending mostly along the curve of the stomach. Medium, circular layer (stratum circular) is well developed everywhere. At the outlet of the stomach he thickens and forms a sphincter. Between the fibers of sphincter, penetrate muscle from longitudinal layer, which together constitute a dilator, pyloric opener. In the inner, deep layer, there are oblique muscle bundles (fibrae obliquae). Their role is to maintain a certain tone of the stomach and adapt it to the size of the content.

Gastric mucosa is thick and muscular sheath connected to a well-developed submucosa. Under the influence of its muscle it builds longitudinal folds and polygonal hills that are surrounded by narrow furrows. Longitudinal folds descend along the big and small curves and disappear when the stomach is full. Along the small curve between the folds glide mucous and fluid through the groove directly into pyloric part of the stomach. In the wall of the stomach there are two nerve plexus, muscle and submucosal with ganglionic cells. Combination of muscles regulates movements of the stomach, and submucosal controls gland secretion.

Common problems associated with the stomach include some of the following:
-Acid Reflux
-Colon Polyps
-Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis
-Duodenal Ulcers
-E. Coli Infection
-Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses
-Heartburn Medication
-Helicobacter Pylori
-Hiatus Hernia (Hiatal Hernia)
-Lactose Intolerance
-Laparoscopic Surgery
-Stomach Bloating
-Stomach Ulcers

Form and external appearance of bone


Bone is a very tough body whitish color. Its main role is to ensure the stability of the body of humans and to provide sufficient resistance to the two main mechanical factors- pressure and stretching, which is subject to the human body throughout your life. The man has 200 bones, excluding the auditory ossicles or other bones that appear in the muscle tendons. Given the ratio of their dimensions- length, width and thickness- they can be divided into long, short and flat. Short bones are located at the ends of the limbs and the spine. Flat bones form a cavity for accommodation of organs that protect the delicate organs and they are quite often very irregular. On each long bone, varies a body (corpus) or the diaphysis and two ends or epiphysis. End or selvage, which is closer to the trunk is called the proximal (proximalis epiphysis) and other end of the bone is called distal (epiphysis distalis).

Form and external appearance of bone

Long bones of the body are usually three-sided prismatic shape. This form allows the body greater resistance to pressure and extraction, whether they act in the direction of longitudinal axis or perpendicular to it. It also allows more favorable conditions on attachment and muscle function. The long bones are not straight but twisted in the form of arc or elongated letter S, because of the mechanical conditions which they are subjected. Their shape and direction are also affected with strong muscles and their attachment and contraction.

On the surface of the bone you can notice the bumps and dents, which are of different shapes and sizes and can be divided into articular and non-articular. Articular bumps and dents have the task to distribute pressure on the joint on the largest area possible so the tissue is not damaged. Non-articular bumps and dents serve for the attachment of muscles and hinge joints. Their role is to increase the space insertion and spread the traction of these elements on a larger area. Thanks to them, muscle tendon attachment is being assigned on 3-4 times larger area than cross section. The dimensions of bone bumps and dents are in direct proportion to the strength of muscles. Therefore, man bone reliefs are much larger than the bones of women because their muscle system is more developed. As the years pass bone bumps become more pronounced and rough due to partial calcification of tendons and joint connections. Non-articular cavities in the form of a pit (fossa), groove (sulcus), the hole (foramen) or cracks (fissures) are caused by the passage of skeletal muscle elements or longtime pressure by some organ.

Male anatomy

male anatomy

The difference between men and woman, occurs at fertilization. Males have a pair of XY chromosomes (females have XX). This then leads to the male anatomy.  The most obvious feature is the male sexual organ. In addition there are numerous other differences: the beard, deep voice, broad shoulders, a higher growth, more muscle mass, etc.


Seminal vesicles: testis, steam sex glands the size of a walnut located in the scrotum-the bag that hangs between the thighs.  In the testes mature germ cells that are shared with the reduction of chromosomes, from which arise the seed cells- sperms with half the number of chromosomes.

Sperm is mature male gametes, which through the top of the head enters the egg. Sperm mobility and stimulates the movement of mucus secreted by the epididymis and prostate.

Deferens is the tube through which semen passes on the way to the urethra through which they will be evicted.

Epididymis is serpentine tube at the back of the testes, which continues into the vas deferens.
Seed bubbles: seed storage and sperm mucus secreted by its content in vas deferens.
The prostate - located behind the pubic bone, covering the beginning of the urethra and secretes mucus mixed with mucus from the seed and the seed bubbles makes sperm.

Male organ- the penis is composed of the pore space and the spongy tissue that swells during sexual arousal because of rush of blood in the cavity.

Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm maturation. Sperm and egg cells, unlike other body cells have 23 chromosomes, while cells in the body have 46. The egg contains only X chromosomes, while sperm contains either X or Y chromosome. If an egg is fertilized with sperm X chromosome, it was conceived to be a female embryo, and if it is fertilized with Y chromosome sperm, it was conceived to be a male embryo. This means that father determines the sex of a child.

internal male anatomy

Testes are located in the scrotum outside the abdominal cavity because for the development of sperm this outdoor temperature of 32 degrees Celsius is ideal. Disease accompanied by high temperature hurts maturation of the semen. Lifespan of sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual intercourse is up to five days. Fertilization occurs naturally after vaginal intercourse. Intercourse is possible if you get an erection-swelling of the male sexual organ, and fertilization occurs if it comes to ejaculation. Male sex hormones-androgens are produced in the testes. Most important is testosterone. It is a hormone that stimulates the fetal age of male genital development and testicular descent from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum. At puberty it stimulates hair growth-male body hair, deepening voice, encourages growth, muscularity and the growth of male sex organs. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus-part of the brain are controlling secretion of the hormone.